Mandating better buildings: A global review of building codes and prospects for improvement in the United States
|Title:||Mandating better buildings: A global review of building codes and prospects for improvement in the United States|
|Publication Date:||March 2016|
|Published In:||Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment|
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.This paper provides a global overview of the design, implementation, and evolution of building energy codes. Reflecting alternative policy goals, building energy codes differ significantly across the United States, the European Union, and China. This review uncovers numerous innovative practices including greenhouse gas emissions caps per square meter of building space, energy performance certificates with retrofit recommendations, and inclusion of renewable energy to achieve 'nearly zero-energy buildings'. These innovations motivated an assessment of an aggressive commercial building code applied to all US states, requiring both new construction and buildings with major modifications to comply with the latest version of the ASHRAE 90.1 Standards. Using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), we estimate that by 2035, such building codes in the United States could reduce energy for space heating, cooling, water heating, and lighting in commercial buildings by 16%, 15%, 20%, and 5%, respectively. Impacts on different fuels and building types, energy rates and bills as well as pollution emission reductions are also examined.
|Ivan Allen College Contributors:|
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment. 5. Issue 2. 188 - 215. ISSN 2041-8396. DOI 10.1002/wene.168.